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Sidaan kuugu lisay iigumaad hanbeyn !

Sidaan kuugu lisay iigumaad hanbeyn !

Taariikhda Waxbarashada Soomaaliya   |

Toronto | QOL | February 02, 2015 – Ummadda Soomaaliyeed oo badankeedu ahaa reer miyi iyo beeraleey ayaa waxbarashadu aheyd mid aad ugu liidata dhaqanka markaa jiray, hase yeeshee waxaa jiray in ay bulshooyinkaasi isu xilqaami jireen ineey dhalinta waxbaraan, waxbarashadaas oo aan aheyn mid habeysan kuna saleysneyd hab nololeedkooda, sida taariikhda qabiilka, dagaalada, barashada diinta, ugaarsiga, dhaqashada xoolaha, tacabka beeraha iyo sida ay uga gaashaaman lahaayeen hadii cadaw ku soo duulo.

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Gumeystuhii reer Yurub ee dalka yimid xitaa way ku adkaatay iney nidaam waxbarasho ka hirgeliyaan dalka Soomaaliya, waayo ummada Soomaaliyeed oo ah dad muslim ah islamarkaana 90% xiligaa reer miyi iyo reer guuraa aheyd waxa ay u arkayeen qorshaha gumeystuhu watay ee aheyd in iskuulo la tago waxna la bartaahi ay aheyd mid lagu dhaqan rogayo bulshada laguna faafinaayo diinta masiixiga ah.

Hase yeeshee qarnigii labaatanaad bartamihiisii sanado yar ka hor intaanan xornimada dalka soomaaliya qaadan ayaa waxaa suurta gashay nidaam yar oo waxbarasho oo ka hirgalay magaalooyinka waaweeyn iyadoo isdhexgal yar oo bulshadii magaala jooga aheyd, shaqaalihii u shaqeeynayay isticmaarka iyo isticmaarkii waqtiga dheer joogay ay hirgelisay in uu soo biloowdo nidaamyo waxbarsho ku tiirsan wadamadii gumeysanayay wadanka.

Waqooyiga Soomaaliya gumeeystihii Ingiriisku sanadkii 1957 wuxuu labanlaabay maalgelintii uu ku maalgelin jiray waxbarashada, halka gumeystihii Talyaanigu uu aad u kordhiyay tababarida iyo waxbarida shaqaalaha iyo arday koobneyd xiligii lagu jiray tobankii sanno ee daakhiliyadda, wuxuuna abuuray Talyaanigu nidaam waxbarasho.

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Sidaa iyada oo ay jirtay hadana xorrnimadii Soomaaliya1960 wadanka kama jirin wax barasho sare marka laga reebo dhowr dugsi sare oo uu Talyaanigu dhisay waqtigii daakhiliyadda oo aanan laheyn manhaj Soomaaliya quseeya, sida dugsi la oran jiray Scuola Liceo Ginnasio kedibna loo bixiyay Scoula Regioneria kedib xilligii kacaanka la siiyay magaca Dugsiga Sare ee Sheekh Yuusuf Al-Kowneyn.

Jaamacadda Lafoole oo ku taalay meel Xamar u jirta 22km dhinaca koonfureed waxay ahayd  jaamacadii ugu horeeysay ee wax lagu barto xornimada kedib ee dalka Somaliya yeesho, waxaana la furay sanadkii 1965-Kii, waxaana magaca Lafoole loo yeelay sanadkii 1973,  iyada oo markii hore ahayd xarun 2 sano lagu tababaro shaqaalaha Dawladda siisana xirfado dhinaca maamulka iyo maaraynta ah.

Jaamacada Lafoole markii hore waxaa dhigan jiray shaqaale ay tababaraan hay’ado dowli ah sida US Peace Corps iyo Dawladdii xilligaa la oran jiray Jarmalka Galbeed.

Waxaa ay Jaamacada Lafoole soo saartay shaqaalihii ugu horeeyay oo dhamaan wasaaradaha iyo xarumaha Dawladda oo dhan ka howlgalay iyada oo manhaj Soomaaliya  quseeya ka baran jiray, halka markii hore tacliinta sare lagu soo qaadan jiray jaamacadaha inta badan Talyaaniga, Ruushka iyo Masar wadamadaas oo deeq waxbarasho noogu deeqi jiray dad aan ka badneyn 100 qof sanadkiiba.

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Xornimadii kedib waxaa la aasaasay guddiga af Soomaaliga oo iyagu howlgalay sanadkii 1961, gudigaasi waxay soo bandhigeen laba jeer warbixin iyo talooyin lagu hirgelin karo qorista afka Somaliga laakiin ma dhicin in lagu tilaabo qaado taladoodii iyo xogtii ay heleen, baaristii hore ee gudiga waxaa howlgaliyay oo kharashaadkooda daboolay dowladii Madaxwayne Adan Cadde (AUN), markii labaadna ha’ada Qaramada midoobay ee UNICHEF.

Qorista Af Soomaaliga iyo guntii kale ee laga lahaa howsha gudiga ma hirgeliin labada jeerba, iyadoo ay ugu wacneyd waqooyiga iyo koonfurta oo ay kala joogeen Ingriis iyo Talyaani oo ahaa laba wadan oo kala lahaa nidaamyo waxbarasho oo aan wax shaqa ah isku laheyn, islamarkaana labadi nidaam ee isku yimid ay ku adkaatay ineey sameeyaan manhaj mideeysan oo ka hirgeli kara guud ahaan wadanka, Markii sadexaad waa markii Dowladii Kacaanka ee uu hogaaminayay Madaxwayne Maxamed Siyad Barre (AUN) waana la meelmariyay himiladii laga lahaa howsha Gudiga Af Soomaaliga.

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Qoristii afka Somaliga ee sanadkii 1972-kii waxa ay Wasaaradii Waxbarashada iyo Barbaarinta oo kaashanaysa khuburo Soomaaliyeed oo afkeena ku xeeldheer ay dejiyeen manhajkii ugu horeeyay sanadkii 1973 iyaga oo ka bilaabay  ururinta dhamaan xogta ku taxaluqda wax walba oo Soomaali ah, iyadoo uu dhinac socday hirgelintii ololihii balaarnaa ee horumarinta reer miyiga ee qorista afka Soomaaliga.

Sanadkii 1974 ayay xukuumadii Kacaanka balaarisay waxbarashadii sare ee wadanka waxaana isla sanadkaa la balaariyay Jaamacadii ummadda Somaliyeed oo biloowgii 1970 dhidibada loo aasay laguna kordhiyay dhowr kuliyadood oo lagu barto aqoon kala duwan, waxaana dib u habayn iyo madaxbanaani la siiyay kuliyadii Lafoole iyada oo laga dhigay xarunta laylisa macalimiinta dugsiyada hoose/dhexe iyo sare ee wadanka, islamarkaas waxa ay dowladii kacaanka oo kaashaneeysa dadweeynaha Soomaaliyeed qaaday howlgal balaaran oo la magac baxay iskaa wax u qabso laguna dhisay dugsiyo hoose/dhexe iyo sare oo aad u fara badan kana hirgalay dhamaan wadanka oo dhan iyadoo horumarkaasi badankiisu ka socday magaalada Muqdisho, caruurtii Soomaaliyeed ee guud ahaan wadanka oo dhamina ay heleen waxbarasho aasaasi ah oo lacag la’aan ah.

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Waxbarashadaas aasaasiga ah ee baahday waxay laheyd guulo waaweeyn iyo guuldarooyin intaba iyadoo dowladii kacaanka aysan u sameyn qorsho nidaamsan oo ay ardaydu hore ugu sii socdaan kedib markii ay dugsiyada sare ka baxaan, taasoo tirada ardayda dugsiyada sare ka soo baxaysa sanad walba oo aan wada heli karin waxbarasho jaamacadeed, iyadoo ay ugu wacneeyd 20 ilaa 30 kun oo arday ah oo guud ahaan dugsiyada sare ee wadanka ka soo baxda ay imtixaan u geli jireen jaamacadda ummada oo qaadan kartay qiyaas dhan 1000 ilaa 1500 arday, isla markaana ay ku qasbanaayeen ardaydu ineey Muqdisho keliya yimaadaan si ay waxbarasho jaamacadeed u helaan, waayo waxay aheyd jaamacadda keliya ee uu wadanku lahaa, taasoo keentay in 98% ardayda ka baxda dugsiyada sare aysan wax camal ah laheyn.

Sababaha keenay isu dheelitir la’aanta waxbarashada aasaasiga ah iyo tan jaamacadeed waxa ugu wacnaa

  • Iyadoo aanan dalka lagu baahin horumarka, lana hormarin xaruumaha waxbarashada ee goboladda dalka.
  • Iyadoo dhamaan tasiilaadka waxbarashada heerka jaamacadeed lagu koobay magaalada Muqdisho.
  • Iyadoo jaamacadda ummaddu ayan xitaa dabooli karin baahida ardayda ka qalin jebineeysa dugsiyada sare ee magaalada Muqdisho, maamulkii kacaankuna uusan qiyaas iyo jaangooyn ku sameyn inta arday ee dugsiyada dhigata oo sanadba sanadka ka danbeeya  sii kordhayay, maadaama waxbarashadu lacag la’aan aheyd  iyo inta arday ee dhameysan karta dugsiyada sare ee dalka guud ahaan.
  • Howsha u taalay dowladda oo ah sidii ay u maareeyn laheyd dhalintaa u baahan kafaalaqaad qaran iyo waxbarasho jaamacadeed ama  machadyo tababaro xirfadeed oo ay ardaydu hore ugu sii socon karaan oo cadaalad ku dhisan si ay wadankooda wax ugu bartaan, si ay ugu dhaboowdo ardayda rajadii ay  ka sinaayeen  ee aheyd “Inaan aqoon kororsado oo aan dhulkeeyga anfaco”   oo aaneey  cidina isku mashquulin.

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Waxaa hoos u dhacay hammigi dhalinyarada iyagoo intooda badani ay u muuqatay in ay adagtahay fursadda uu ku heli karo waxbarasho jaamacadeed hadii uu dhameeysto waxbarashada dugsiga sare, mar hadii musuqmaasuq baahay uu ka jiray dhanka waxbarashada, taasi waxay keentay in halkaa ay ku luntay maskax noqon laheyd mid wax ifisa lagana door biday arday aan waxbarasho diyaar u aheyn laakiin ka soo jeeda reer magac, dhaqaale ama awood ku lahaa maamulkii kacaanka kuna fadhiisto kursi uusan mudneyn, ardaygii ka mudnaana tabar u deeyrisay.

Niyad jabkaa ka imaanayay xilgudasho la’aantii dowladda ee shacabkeeda wuxuu sababay in ay lunto aaminaadi ardayga Soomaaliga ah ee wadankiisa, islamarkaana adeegsiga musuqmaasuqa, reer hebel iyo awood isu sheegadku wuxuu keenay in muwaadinku dareemo in wadanka xuquuqdiisa aan loo sineyn, waana arinka ugu weeynaa ee dhiirigeliyay in cadaawad loo qaado xukuumadii kacaanka kedib markii uu shaqsiga muwaadinka ahi cadaalad ka waayay wadankii uu u dhashay, burburkaas ku yimid nidaamkii waxbarashadana uu horseeday in dhalinyaradu ka niyad jabaan wadankoodi una hayaamaan wadamada caalamka oo ay ka raadsadaan cadaalad iyo xuquuq ay ka waayeen wadankii ay u dhasheen.

Dagaalkii sokeeye ee wadanka ka dhacay kedib waxaa jiray waxbarasho danta laga lahaa ay aheyd hanti ka abuurasho, iyadoo magaalo walba oo dalka ku taala rag is xilqaamay isticmaalayana hantidii iyo dhismayaashii dugsiyada qaarkood ka bilaabeen iskuulo iyo jaamacado macmal ah oo aanan manhaj caam ah oo ay ka wada siman tahay waxbarashada dalka lagu fulineynin waxbarashadaas, iyadoo ay meesha ka baxday kala danbeeyntii iyo sharcigii.

Waxayna badankoodu ku xirmeen hay’ado gargaar ama wadamo carabeed maalgelin koobana ka heli jiray ama ka hela ilaa maanta wadamadaas iyo hay’adahaas, iyagoo islamarkaana isticmaalaya manaahiijta wadamada Carbeed ee maalgeliya oo aan tusaale uga soo qaadan karano manaahiijta waxbarashada wadamada Kuweyt iyo Qatar.

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Somaaliya guud ahaan waxbarashadu way balaaratay jaamacadaha wadanka ku yaalana waxay kor u dhaafayaan boqol jaamacadood oo aan ka xusi karno kuwooda ugu caansan:-

Gobolka Banaadir waxaa ilaa hadda ku yaala 38 jaamacadood inta hadda la ogyahay waxeyna kala yihiin:

  1. Al-Alum and Technology University, Mogadishu
  2. Al-Furqan University, Mogadishu
  3. Al-Umm University, Mogadishu
  4. Benadir University, Mogadishu
  5. Capital Universty, Mogadishu
  6. City University, Mogadishu
  7. Dar Al-ulum University, Mogadishu
  8. Darul Hikmah University (DU), Mogadishu
  9. Green Hope University, Mogadishu
  10. Horizon International University, Mogadishu
  11. Hormuud University, Mogadishu
  12. Horn of Africa University, Mogadishu
  13. Horseed International University (HIU), Mogadishu
  14. Hope University
  15. Imam University (IU), Mogadishu
  16. Indian Ocean University (IOU), Mogadishu
  17. Islamic University (IUSO), Mogadishu
  18. Jamhuriya University of Science and Technology (JUST), Mogadishu
  19. Jazeera University, Mogadishu
  20. Job Key University, Mogadishu
  21. Kownayn University (KU), Mogadishu
  22. Madinah University, Mogadishu
  23. Modern University for Science and Technology (MUST), Mogadishu
  24. Mogadishu University, Mogadishu
  25. Nilen University, Mogadishu
  26. Plasma University, Mogadishu
  27. SABA University
  28. Salaam University, Mogadishu
  29. Savannah University, Mogadishu
  30. Shabelle University (SUFA), Mogadishu
  31. SIMAD University (SIMAD), Mogadishu
  32. Somali International University, Mogadishu
  33. Somali National University, Mogadishu
  34. Southern University Science and Technology, Mogadishu
  35. St Clements University, Mogadishu
  36. Universita di Hamar, Mogadishu
  37. University of Somalia (UNISO), Mogadishu
  38. Waayeel University, Mogadishu

 

Gobolka Shabeelada hoose waxaaa ku taala hal jaamacad waxaana lagu magacaabaa:

  1. Marka University, Merca

Gobolka Shabeelada dhaxe waxaaa ku taala hal jaamacad waxaana lagu magacaabaa:

  1. Jowhar University, Jowhar

Gobolka Baay waxaaa ku taala afar jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Bay University, Baidoa
  2. Dinsoor University, Dinsoor
  3. Baydhabo University, Baidoa
  4. University of Southern Somalia, Baidoa

Gobolka Hiiraan waxaaa ku taala todobo jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Beledwein University, Beledweyne
  2. Halgan Institute of Technology, Halgan
  3. Hiiraan University, Beledweyne
  4. Hiran Institute of Management, Accounting and Secretarial Skills, (HIMAS), Beledweyne
  5. Plasma University, Beledweyne
  6. Waaberi University (WU), Buloburde
  7. Qoono University, (QU), Beledweyne

Gobolka Jubada hoose waxaaa ku taala labo jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Kismayo University, Kismayo
  2. Plasma University, Kismayo

Gobolka Gado waxaaa ku taala labo jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Bardera Polytechnic, Bardera
  2. University of Gedo, Bardera

Gobolka Galguduud waxaaa ku taala afar jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Cadaado University, Cadaado
  2. Guri’el University, Guri’el
  3. El Buur National University, El Buur
  4. Dhusamareb University, Dhusamareb

Gobolka Awdal waxaaa ku taala sadax jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Amoud University, Borama
  2. Eelo American University, Borama
  3. SAW Community College, Borama

Gobolka Sanaag waxaaa ku taala afar jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. East Africa University, Erigavo
  2. Gollis University, Erigavo
  3. Maakhir University, Badhan
  4. Sanaag University of Science and Technology (USTec), Erigavo

Deegaanada uu ka aramiyo maamul goboleedka Puntland waxaa ku taala 16 jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Alhakim College of Technology and Business Studies, Qardho
  2. Bosaso College, Bosaso
  3. Bosaso University, Bosaso
  4. East Africa University, Bosaso
  5. East Africa University, Galdogob
  6. East Africa University, Galkayo
  7. East Africa University, Garowe
  8. East Africa University, Qardho
  9. East Somalia University, Qardho
  10. Gaalkacyo University, Galkayo
  11. Mogadishu University (Puntland branch), Bosaso
  12. Mudug University, North Galkayo
  13. Plasma University (Puntland branch)
  14. Puntland Institute for Development of Administration and Management, Bosaso
  15. Puntland State University, Galkayo
  16. Puntland State University, Garowe

Deegaanada uu maamulka Khaatumo ka aramiyo waxaa ku taala afar jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Buuhoodle University, Buuhoodle
  2. East Africa University, Buuhoodle
  3. Ilays National University, Las Anod
  4. Nugaal University, Las Anod

 Deegaanada uu ka aramiyo maamulka Somaliland waxaa ku taala 15 jaamacadood waxaana lagu kala magacaabaa:

  1. Abaarso Tech University, Hargeisa
  2. Addis Ababa Medical University College, Hargeisa
  3. Addis University College, Burao
  4. Admas University College, Hargeisa
  5. Alpha University, Hargeisa
  6. Burao University, Burao
  7. Gollis University, Berbera
  8. Gollis University, Burao
  9. Gollis University, Hargeisa
  10. Hargeisa University, Hargeisa
  11. Hope University, Hargeisa
  12. Institute of Islamic Banking and Financial Studies (IBF), Hargeisa
  13. Omar Hashi International University, Hargeisa
  14. Pioneer University, Hargeisa
  15. Somaliland University of Technology (SUTECH), Hargeisa

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Tirada dadka somalida waxaa lagu qiyaasay bilowgi sanadkan 2014 ka in ka badan 13.383.000 inta wadanka ku sugan, waxbarashada macmalka ah ee wadanka ka jirta maanta oo ay gacanta ku hayaan ururo siyaasadeedyo iyo rag ay dantoodu tahay in aan marnaba wadankani ka hirgelin manhaj mideeysan, nidaam iyo kala danbeyn dhaqaalana ka abuurta dhiiga danyarta somaaliyeed kuna tiirsan manaahiij ay kala yimaadaan hadba wadanka markaa ay kooxdaasi gacan saar la leedahay, iyagoo xaruumo jaamacadeedyo ka sameeystay dugsiyadii qaranku lahaa oo aheyd hanti ummaddu leedahay.

Macalimiin tayadoodu liidato iyo arday aanan loo diyaarin ineey xirfado ay ku shaqeeystaan la baro, waxay jawaabteedu noqotay in 99% ardaydu ay bartaan culuunta maamulmulka, siyaasada, diinta islaamka iyo culuunta computer-ka, taasoo ay ugu wacan tahay iyagoon jaamacadahaasi ayan heli karin macalimiinta iyo tasiilaadka ay u baahan tahay jaamacad maadaama ay rag shacab ah ay ku wadaan howlahaas hanti shaqsi oo la ogyahay baaxada mashruucaas in aysan ku suurto geli karin.

Markii aan fiirino wadamada horumaray ee qaniga ah nidaam waxbarashadeedkooda oo aysan ka jirin  jaamacado shaqsiyaad leeyihiin taasoo ay ugu wacan tahay in hey’adda waxbarashadu tahay  mid dan qaas ah oo shaqsi  ka baaxad weyn ahna howl lagu fuliyo manaahiij mideeysan iyo awood qaran, Soomaaliya oo ka mid ah wadamada dunida ugu faqrisana ay ka jiraan jaamacadaas aan qaarkood kor ku soo xusay ee xadka dhaafay habka ganacsina u furan,  waxaa ka dhasha ama ay soo saaraan arday aanan camal aan maamul aheyn aqoon u laheyn kuwaasoo  ka qeeyb qaata siyaadada wadanka, islamarkaana dhamaan jiilka cusubi ay wada noqdeen dhalinyaro u janjeerta dhanka siyaasadda ama ganacsiga waaba haduu reer ladan ka soo jeedo, taasoo ay ku qasbeeyso inaaneey xirfad kale jirin, mar hadaanu mashruucii mishiinka xirfadleeyda iyo macalimiintoodi ee wadanka dhaqaajin lahaana aanu jirin awood shaqsiyadeedna uu ka culus yahay, in la diyaariyo iska daaye  cidii isku daydaa ka talo bixinteeda iyo  in hab qaran loo wajaho ay suurta gal tahay inay xilkeeda ama nafteeda ku weeyso, maadaama ay qolo gaar ah u xiran tahay  waxbarashada  wadanka kuna fuliyaan habkan macmalka ah, islamarkaana iyadoo hantileeyda jaamacaduhu  ogyihiin in aanay awoodi karin howshaas baaxadeeda ay ka warqabaan, waxay shacabka tusiyaan qalinjebino arday  fara badan usbuuc walba  kuna  qabtaan hotellada qaaliga ah ee magaalooyinka wadanka iyagoo soo saara arday aanan wadanka waxba u qaban karin xirfad ay ku shaqeeystaana laheyn kharash badana ku baxay, taasoo keenta in ardaydu markeey jaamacadaha ka baxaan intooda badan aananay heli karin cid u ciidanta  kedibna ay miciin bidaan in ay  dibedaha tahriib dhimasho badan keena u aadaan.

Tirada guud ee jaamacadaha dalka Soomaaliya ilaa hadda ku yaala cadad malaha laakiin waxaa isweeydiin leh, yaa wax ku barta maxayse ku bartaan, iyo yaa wax baran kara ?

Markaad su’aalahaas jawaabtooda raadisid waxaa ku soo baxaya in ay waxbarashadaani ku socoto jidkii ay ku socon jirtay kuwii ka horeeyay oo qayb weyn kaga egtahay taasoo ah in aradayga waxbarashada dhameeysta aysan suurto gal u aheyn inuu wixii uu bartay ku shaqeeysto, maadaama aysan wadanka maanta shaqa ka jirin, keliyana ay jiraan 2ba shaqo bixiyayaal oo kala ah:-

  1. Shaqada Siyaasadda
  2. Shaqada caanka ka ah soomaaliya ee Ganacsiga

Dhanka kale oo ay iska shaabahaana ay tahay ineey tahay waxbarasho mudnaan ku saleeysan oo uusan arday walba waxbaran Karin ayna xiran tahay cidii ama reerkii awoodi kara, hadaba Soomaalida oo sidaan hore u soo sheegay u badan qoysas danyar ah caruur badana dhaqan u leh, waxaa is weeydiin leh imisa ayaa iskuul u aadi karta qoys danyar ah nidaamkan waxbarashada lacagta ah ee guud ahaan wadanka ka jirta maanta ?

Waxbarashadii wax nalagu soo baray oo ay maanta ku faanayaan macalimiintaas iyo milkiilayaashaas ee lacag la’aanta aheyd sidii loogu lisay ma ugu hanbeeyeen ?

Iskama indhatirayo xaalku siduu yahay maanta in ay dhaanto wax la’aan in la helo waxbarasho si kastaba haku timaadee, laakiin ma tahay waxbarasho manhaj mideeysan leh oo hal wadan ka jira, jawaabta waa maya, waxaa kaloo arinka sii xumeeynaya ardaydaa waxbaraneeysana niyad jab ku sii ridaya xaalka maanta wadanka ka jira iyo mustaqbalka u muuqan kara iyo siyaasadaha cakiran ee fadhiidka ah ee aan hore u socon, ayna meesha ka maqantahay barnaamijkii dib u dhiska qaranka iyo soo celinta adeega bulshada oo aan waxba la iska weeydiineeyn laguna mashquulsan yahay siyaasad guud ee villa Soomaaliya.

Hadii aanan xaalka jiilka soo koraya xal loo helin, jiilkaan hadda siyaasadda isku heeystana aanay u tanaasulin shacabka ay masuulka ka yihiin, waxbarasho caam ah oo dowladda hoos timaada  dhalintuna u siman tahayna la helin, waxay da’yartu weligood ku fikiri doonaan inay wadanka ka hayaamaan badaha iyo saxarahana caruur badani ku dhamaato ee Soomaaliyeey caqligu ha shaqeeyo.

By Mustafa Salad Awale| Toronto

 

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